History of Valley Fever

One of the oldest and most studied fungal diseases

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The medical name for Valley Fever is coccidioidomycosis – often called “cocci” for short.  Valley Fever is caused by a fungus which is a member of the plant family.  Molds and mushrooms are examples of other members of the fungus group of plants.  The first case reported in the World occurred in 1892 in an Argentinian soldier.  Two years later two researchers recognized a similar case in a Portuguese immigrant farm laborer working in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California.  In Kern County, the first case recognized and reported occurred in August, 1901.  Kern’s first case occurred in a 19-year-old man who worked as a canner and been a resident for only 12 days.

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1892

First Documented Case in World


Domingo Ezcurra
36-year-old Argentinean Soldier
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1893

First Documented Case in US


Joas Furtado Silveira was the second case. He emigrated from Azores in 1886 and worked as a farm laborer near Modesto, CA
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1896

Emmet Rixford and T.C. Gilchrist


Credited for naming organism
Coccidioides immitis
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1900

William Ophulus and
Herbert Moffitt


Determined Coccidioides immitis to be caused by a fungus and not a protozoan
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1901

First Documented Case in Kern


19-year-old male cannery worker
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1905

William Ophuls


Determined lungs were the entry point for the disease and described the clinical spectrum
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1908

Earnest Dickson


Begins his work at Stanford University
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1924

Skin Testing Begins with Coccidioidin

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1928

California makes Cocci a reportable disease

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1929

Harold D. Chope Accidentally Inhales Coccides

Medical student working in Ernest Dicksons Lab at Stanford
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1929

C. E. Smith Replaces Harold Chope

Becomes the Wandering Epidemiologist
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1930

First Worker’s Compensation Case in Kern County

Shell Oil Company employee receives compensation for Coccidioidomycosis
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1931

Kern County Public Health Department Established

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1932

First Soil Isolation of Fungus


Coccidioides isolated from soil in Delano
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1934

Myrnie Gifford, M.D., M.P.H.


Joined Kern County Health Department
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1935

Dickson-Gifford Break-Through


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1940s

Serologial Tests Developed and Standardized

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1951

Hans Einstein Comes to Kern


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1955

Reporting Includes Mild Valley Fever Cases

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1956

J.L. Converse Perfected Lab Growth of Sperules

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1956

Coccidioidomycosis Study Group (CSG) Formed

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1957

First Treatment for Valley Fever


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1959

Thomas R. Larwood, MD


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1960

Treatment for Meningitis


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~1963

M. Gifford Visits H.B. Levine


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1975

D. Pappagianis and H. B. Levine


Vaccine Study
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1975

Royce Johnson, MD FACP


Joined Kern Medical Center Faculty
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1977

Tempest from Tehachapi


Epidemiologic Study by H. Einstein and D. Pappagianis
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1980

First Vaccine Trial in Kern County


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1981

Ketoconazole Approved by FDA


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Early 1990’s

Fluconazole and Itraconazole Enter the Game

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1991

Great Epidemic Begins in Kern


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1991

Oral Azoles Used to Treat Meningitis








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1991

Studies from the Great Epidemic


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1994

Northridge Earthquake


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1995

Report on the Control of Coccidioidomycosis

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1995-1996

Case Definition Established


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1995

Rotary America's Foundation/Valley Fever Vaccine Project


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~1996

Skin Test is No Longer Available

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1997

Arizona Makes Valley Fever Reportable for Labs

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2000

Construction on La Paloma Power Generating Plant

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2001

World Championship of Model Airplane Event in Kern County

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2002

Coccidioides posadassi Identified


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2003

Taft Outbreak


Kern County
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2003

Pleasant Valley State Prison Outbreak

Fresno County
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2003

Edwards Air Force Base Dust Storm

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2005

ISDA Treatment Guidelines Published

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2010

Second Great Epidemic Hits in Kern County

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2010

California Makes Cocci Lab Reportable

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2011

First Meeting of the California Cocci Collaborative

Michael MacLean, M.D., M.S., Health Officer, Kings County
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2011

KCPHSD Lab Begins 24 Turn Around for Testing

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2012

Kern County Begins Enhanced Surveillance

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2014

Skin Testing Antigen Available for Clinicians & Research

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2025

Valley Fever Vaccine is Available


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STATISTICS

Double the traffic

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65% better ideas

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85% comments

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75% speed increase

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ANALYSIS

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Nulla rutrum cursus elementum. Pellentesque dictum elementum consectetur. Nunc tincidunt nibh non justo suscipit scelerisque. Curabitur pellentesque pretium massa in blandit. Maecenas euismod lacinia neque. Praesent pellentesque tristique tortor eu vulputate. Aenean viverra justo fermentum sapien scelerisque feugiat. Suspendisse potenti. Sed tincidunt consequat sem ut egestas. Nulla non tincidunt magna. Nunc rutrum erat ac mi sagit.

 

WHAT WE KNOW NOW

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WHAT WE'RE LEARNING

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DEC. 20, 1977

Dust Storm Over Bakersfield

5,000 ft elevation

WHAT WE'RE DOING ABOUT IT

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Donec vel nunc ligula. Ut odio mauris, pharetra id porttitor lobortis, convallis a sem. Nunc ut dolor nibh. Fusce turpis dolor, dictum eu ultrices quis, tempor in felis. Suspendisse at cursus magna. Donec eleifend, felis sollicitudin rutrum bibendum, elit felis varius lorem, id viverra urna mi pretium erat. In eget sapien a lacus porttitor fermentum. Proin laoreet iaculis placerat. Sed iaculis, dolor sed ultricies dignissim, nisi est laoreet erat, ut feugiat mi dui.

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WHAT WE KNOW NOW

Sonec vel nunc ligula. Ut odio mauris, pharetra id porttitor lobortis, convallis a sem. Nunc ut dolor nibh. Fusce turpis dolor, dictum eu ultrices quis, tempor in felis. Suspendisse at cursus magna. Donec eleifend, felis sollicitudin rutrum bibendum, elit felis varius lorem, id viverra urna mi pretium erat. In eget sapien a lacus porttitor fermentum. Proin laoreet iaculis placerat. Sed iaculis, dolor sed ultricies dignissim, nisi est laoreet erat, ut feugiat mi dui.

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CONCLUSION

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